Game programming is one of the core central concepts of video game development. All video games and similar software products have some form of code at their core. In some cases, the entire game is written by the developer from scratch. In other cases, a game developer obtains a development suite like GameMaker or Unity, which only require a small amount of scripting or programming of the developer, and offloads the majority of the programming work to the developers of the development suite like Unity or GameMaker. Regardless, someone has to write the code, and everyone has to write at least some small amount of it.
Scripting vs programming
Generally speaking, scripting is a form of programming where the writer is writing code that is being interpreted by something larger that's been programmed to read the scripts. For example, Unity3D and Unreal Engine interpret and compiles scripts, but in themselves have been programmed to read them. Alone, scripts are useless and oversimplified pieces of code meant for something bigger than themselves to understand them. Scripts exist so that programmers don't have to constantly re-write little features and re-compile them for hours. Instead, scripters are trained in whatever language the programmer's interpreter uses, and are able to write, save, and test scripts in mere seconds. Scripts also make work easier for modders!
Free source code
Many games are released with their source code. Some, right away. Others, years after release. Either way, here is a large compilation.
Programming, on the other hand, is generally referred to as the development of lower level executables. Programmers usually work with APIs such as Vulkan or DirectX.
Languages are not taken into account in this comparison, as any compiler or script interpreter can be designed to read any language.
Tutorials and resources that teach game programming
Programming language portal
Portal to different difficulty levels for programming (novice, beginner, intermediate, experienced) which provide various languages and resources
Free software relating to game programming